THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION




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Industrialization can be defined as the development of industry on an extensive scale. It is the process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services. Individual manual labour is often replaced by mechanized mass production and craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines.

A Brief Summary:


  • The Industrial Revolution occurred in the last part of the 18th century. It began in Great Britain.


  • This revolution was an economic one, and it changed the way the world produced goods.
  • The population went from being agricultural to industrial. This meant people moved off of the farms and out of the country. There were huge numbers of people that moved into cities. Many people were forced to move to the cities to look for work. They ended up living in cities that could not support them. 


  • During this time, there were also many new advancements in technology. The assembly line was one of the biggest inventions. Henry Ford is credited with this invention.


  • Some of the biggest advancements were in steam power. New fuels such as coal and petroleum were used in these new steam engines. This revolutionized many industries including textiles and manufacturing.
  • Another invention was called the telegraph. This made communicating across the ocean easier and much faster. Messages could be sent and received in minutes and delivered the same day. Writing a letter and sending it overseas could take weeks.


  • The Industrial Revolution was not a good revolution for the earth. Industry was releasing huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and waste into the waterways and soil. Pollution by nuclear waste, pesticides and other chemicals are also the result of the Industrial Revolution.


  • Many natural resources were being used up at an alarming rate.
  • Advances in farming resulted in an increased supply of food and raw materials. The changes in industry and new technology resulted in increased production of thousands of goods. Companies were more efficient and earned bigger profits.


  • The year 1760, is generally accepted as the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In reality, the revolution began more than two centuries before this date. The late 18th century and the early l9th century brought out the ideas and discoveries of those who had lived a long time before like Galileo, Bacon, Descartes and others.


Characteristics of Industrialization:

  1. The use of technological innovation to solve problems.
  2. More efficient division of labour.
  3. Economic growth.


The Sectors of an Economy:


A nation’s economy can be divided into various sectors to define the proportion of the population engaged in the activity sector.

  1. Primary – The primary sector of the economy extracts or harvests products from the earth. The primary sector includes the production of raw material and basic foods. Activities associated with the primary sector include agriculture (both subsistence and commercial), mining, forestry, farming, grazing, hunting and gathering, fishing, and quarrying. The packaging and processing of the raw material associated with this sector is also considered to be part of this sector.


  2. Secondary – The secondary sector of the economy manufactures finished goods. All of manufacturing, processing, and construction lies within the secondary sector. Activities associated with the secondary sector include metal working and smelting, automobile production, textile production, chemical and engineering industries, aerospace manufacturing, energy utilities, engineering, breweries and bottlers, construction, and shipbuilding.


  3. Tertiary – The tertiary sector of the economy is the service industry. This sector provides services to the general population and to businesses. Activities associated with this sector include retail and wholesale sales, transportation and distribution, entertainment (movies, television, radio, music, theater, etc.), restaurants, clerical services, media, tourism, insurance, banking, healthcare, and law.



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